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Pagoda tree (Styphnolobiumjaponicum)

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Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Chinese scholar tree, Chinese scholartree, enju (Japanese), Fabaceae (family), galactomannan, genistein, Guilty Chinese Scholar Tree, Guilty Chinese Scholartree, huai-chiao (Chinese), huai-hua (Chinese), huai-mi (Chinese), Japanese pagoda tree, Japanese pagodatree, kaempferol derivatives, letins, Leguminosae (family), maltol derivatives, pagodatree, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, rutin, sophorabioside, Sophora flower bud, Sophora flower buds, Sophora japonica, sophoricoside, Styphnolobiumjaponicum, Styphnolobiumjaponicum (L.) Schott.

Background
  • The pagoda tree is native to eastern Asia and was brought to Japan. It is a popular tree in northern areas because of its white flowers that bloom in late summer. The pagoda tree is often used in bonsai horticulture.
  • Lectins (proteins) from the pagoda tree have been used for cell function monitoring after kidney transplant.
  • A few lab and animal studies have been done on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and radioprotective properties of the pagoda tree. Currently there is not enough available evidence in humans to support the use of pagoda tree for any medical condition.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, coagulation (blood clotting) disorders, immunomodulation, radioprotection, skin fairness.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for pagoda tree in adults.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for pagoda tree in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Japanese pagoda tree or its constituents.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • There is little information currently available on the adverse effects associated with pagoda tree.
  • Use cautiously in patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Japanese pagoda tree, its constituents, or members of the Fabaceae family.
  • Use cautiously in patients with blood clotting disorders or taking blood thinning agents.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

  • Pagoda tree is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Lectins (proteins) from pagoda tree seeds may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn ®, Aleve®).
  • Pagoda tree may interact with anti-inflammatory drugs; use cautiously.
  • Pagoda tree may have antimicrobial activity; use cautiously.
  • Pagoda tree may have antioxidant activity.
  • Compounds purified from pagoda tree seeds alter the immune system.
  • Pagoda tree may interact with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and COX-2 inhibitors; use cautiously.
  • A combination of pagoda tree and pantocrine (deer velvet extract) may be radioprotective.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

  • Lectins from pagoda tree seeds may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Many cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto.
  • Pagoda tree may interact with anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements. Use cautiously, due to possible additive effects.
  • Pagoda tree may have antimicrobial activity. Use cautiously with antibacterial herbs, due to possible additive effects.
  • Pagoda tree may have antioxidant activity.
  • Pagoda tree may selectively interact with COX-2 inhibitor herbs and supplements; use cautiously.
  • A combination of pagoda tree and pantocrine (deer velvet extract) may be radioprotective.
  • Compounds purified from pagoda tree seeds may alter the immune system.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Danilevskii NF, Antonishin BV. [Antimicrobial activity of a tincture of Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica) and of the essential oil of sweet flag (Acorus calamus)]. Mikrobiol.Zh. 1982;44(5):80-82.
  2. Grupp C, Hemprich U, John H, et al. Lectin staining for urine cytologic monitoring after kidney transplantation. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2002;17(8):1491-1496.
  3. Kim BH, Chung EY, Ryu JC, et al. Anti-inflammatory mode of isoflavone glycoside sophoricoside by inhibition of interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 in inflammatory response. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(4):306-311.
  4. Kite GC, Stoneham CA, Veitch NC. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa. Phytochemistry 2007;68(10):1407-1416.
  5. Liu IM, Sheu SJ. Analysis and processing of Chinese herbal drugs. VIII: The study of sophorae floe. Am J Chin Med 1989;17(3-4):179-187.
  6. Narimanov AA, Kuznetsova SM, Miakisheva SN. [The modifying action of the Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica) and pantocrine in radiation lesions]. Radiobiologiia. 1990;30(2):170-174.
  7. Poretz RD, Barth RF. Studies on the interaction of the Sophora japonica lectin and concanavalin A with erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Immunology 1976;31(2):187-194.
  8. Potapov MI. [Partial group-specific phytohemagglutinins anti-B1 and anti-B2]. Sud.Med Ekspert. 2004;47(1):16-19.
  9. Smirnova NI, Mestechkina NM, Shcherbukhin VD. [Fractional isolation and study of the structure of galactomannan from sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum) seeds]. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 2004;40(5):596-601.
  10. Wang KH, Lin RD, Hsu FL, et al. Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 7-19-2006;106(3):353-359.
  11. Wu AM, Kabat EA, Gruezo FG, et al. Immunochemical studies on the reactivities and combining sites of the D-galactopyranose- and 2-acetamido--2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose-specific lectin purified from Sophora japonica seeds. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1981;209(1):191-203.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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