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Alpha-lipoic acid (1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid)



Interactions

Alpha-lipoic acid/Drug Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced the pain from burning mouth syndrome (97; 98; 135). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced pain caused by a herniated disk (148).
  • Alzheimer's agentsAlzheimer's agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid potentially reduced progression of dementia (161). However, in other human research, a combination of vitamins E and C, and alpha-lipoic acid caused a decrease in Mini-Mental State Examination scores (104).
  • Antianxiety agentsAntianxiety agents: Patients with burning mouth syndrome who had previously been treated with tranquilizers responded poorly to therapy with alpha-lipoic acid compared with those who had not received previous psychotropic therapy (162). Sleep disturbances were reported in a clinical trial, but both were also reported in the placebo group, and significance is unclear (83).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In human research, supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on fibrinolytic variables, including thrombin (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin complexes) and fibrin formation (fibrinopeptide A), as well as markers of the fibrinolytic activity (tissue-plasminogen activator, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, d-dimers) either at rest or in response to exercise (108). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid decreased platelet reactivity and the expression of CD62P in platelets ex vivo (31). The effect of alpha-lipoic acid has been examined on platelet reactivity in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, results were unclear (163).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In human research, effects of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose levels and glucose hemostatis were mixed, with decreases or no effects occurring, alone or in combination with antidiabetic agents (8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 88; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 89; 90). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved steady state plasma insulin, glucose infusion rate, and insulin sensitivity index (13). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid increased the overall glucose uptake (164; 165; 26; 166; 167; 15; 168; 169; 170). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid potentially reduced the need for antidiabetic medication, potentially causing short-term hypoglycemia (details regarding the placebo or alpha-lipoic acid group were lacking) (15).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of cellular or blood tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-2 in most studies (171; 13; 125), but it lacked effect on IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha in another (147). Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid have also been shown in vitro (2; 172).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effects on blood pressure in most studies (130; 15; 28; 124; 13); however, decreases were noted in others (82).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to moderate cholesterol increases associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). Improvements in plasma lipids (decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and/or increased HDL cholesterol) occurred in some (82; 118; 13) but not all (19; 17; 20; 27; 96; 126; 28; 30; 29) human studies. In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173)
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In human research, a combination of alpha-lipoic acid, hydroxycitrate, cisplatin, and methotrexate was more effective than both alpha-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate alone, and cisplatin and methotrexate alone (174). There is some preliminary evidence of benefit of alpha-lipoic acid in cancer patients in case reports (175; 176). According to secondary sources, alpha-lipoic acid antagonizes the action of cisplatin and may reduce cisplatin effectiveness. Anticancer effects of alpha-lipoic acid have been shown in vitro (177; 178). Antioxidants may influence the response to chemotherapy, as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents (179).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced body weight and food intake (180). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to reduce weight gain associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid increased weight loss in obese subjects (28) but lacked effect on body weight in other studies (15). Weight gain was reported in a clinical trial (84). In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173).
  • AntipsychoticsAntipsychotics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to reduce weight gain and cholesterol increases associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid prevented the antipsychotic induced dopamine D2 receptor upregulation and oxidative stress (181).
  • AntiretroviralsAntiretrovirals: In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173); however, alpha-lipoic acid improved lymphocyte function in patients with history of unresponsiveness to highly active antiretroviral treatment (123). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid suppressed HIV transcription (182; 183; 184) and delayed replication of HIV (185; 186). In vitro, lipoic acid reduced the growth of vaccinia virus (187).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173); however, alpha-lipoic acid improved lymphocyte function in patients with history of unresponsiveness to highly active antiretroviral treatment (123). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid suppressed HIV transcription (182; 183; 184) and delayed replication of HIV (185; 186). In vitro, lipoic acid reduced the growth of vaccinia virus (187).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: In human research, antioxidants, including alpha-lipoic acid, were found to offer some improvements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (188). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced the pain associated with exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease (84).
  • CNS depressantsCNS depressants: Patients with burning mouth syndrome who had previously been treated with tranquilizers responded poorly to therapy with alpha-lipoic acid compared with those who had not received previous CNS depressant therapy (162).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: Alpha-lipoic acid decreased NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity in the human heart, liver, and lungs (189; 190). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid was used as a reversible inhibitor of NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (191).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to have moderate antioxidative capability in terms of preventing oxidative damage to proteins in the human stratum corneum (192). In human research, DermaViteT, a preparation containing marine proteins, alpha-lipoic acid, pine bark extract, vitamins, and minerals, was found to be beneficial in aging symptoms of the skin (94). In human research, antioxidants containing alpha-lipoic acid before and during NB-UVB improved the clinical effectiveness of NB-UVB for vitiligo (193).
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®)Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®): In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid when given with doxorubicin provided a protective effect against cardiotoxicity (194).
  • Drugs used for osteoporosisDrugs used for osteoporosis: Alpha-lipoic acid suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro (195).
  • Erythropoietin-stimulating agentsErythropoietin-stimulating agents: In human research, a combination of antioxidants and vitamin D reduced the need for erythropoietin-stimulating agents in patients that were vitamin D deficient with anemic dialysis (196).
  • GabapentinGabapentin: In human research, for burning mouth syndrome, one study reported better efficacy with a combination of alpha-lipoic acid and gabapentin (GABA) than either agent alone (98; 145).
  • Glaucoma agentsGlaucoma agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved biochemical parameters and visual function in patients with glaucoma (122).
  • Hematological agentsHematological agents: In human research, a combination of antioxidants and vitamin D reduced the need for erythropoietin-stimulating agents in patients that were vitamin D deficient with anemic dialysis (196).
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: Alpha-lipoic acid has been advocated for liver disease; however, its use is anecdotal, and the mechanism of action remains unclear.
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation was associated with an enhancement in glutathione levels and recovery of lymphocyte proliferative responsiveness in patients who previously failed antiretroviral treatment (HAART) (123). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid and DHLA inhibited the migration of Jurkat cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in Jurkat cell supernatants (56).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid scavenged very-long-chain fatty acid-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in reduced oxidative stress to proteins, axonal degeneration, and locomotor impairment (197). In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid prevented nerve dysfunction, based on nerve conduction velocity (198).
  • NitroglycerinNitroglycerin: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid before treatment prevented the inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and nitrate bioactivation by nitroglycerin (199).
  • Ophthalmic agentsOphthalmic agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved biochemical parameters and visual function in patients with glaucoma (122).
  • Thyroid hormonesThyroid hormones: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid interfered with the transformation of T4 to T3 (109).
  • Tricyclic antidepressantsTricyclic antidepressants: The authors of a systematic review stated that the effect of alpha-lipoic acid treatment on neuropathy was comparable to the effects of carbamazepine, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressants (6).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved endothelial dysfunction and flow-mediated dilation in most studies (124; 21; 82; 23; 153; 27). In vitro in vascular smooth muscle cells, alpha-lipoic acid up- or downregulated proteins involved in functioning of the cells (32). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to improve endothelial dysfunction and vasodilation (72; 200).
  • VasopressorsVasopressors: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved endothelial dysfunction and flow-mediated dilation in most studies (124; 21; 82; 23; 153; 27). In vitro in vascular smooth muscle cells, alpha-lipoic acid up- or downregulated proteins involved in functioning of the cells (32). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to improve endothelial dysfunction and vasodilation (72; 200).

Alpha-lipoic acid/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced the pain from burning mouth syndrome (97; 98; 135). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced pain caused by a herniated disk (148).
  • Alzheimer's agentsAlzheimer's agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid potentially reduced progression of dementia (161). However, in other human research, a combination of vitamins E and C and alpha-lipoic acid caused a decrease in Mini-Mental State Examination scores (104).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In human research, supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on fibrinolytic variables, including thrombin (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin complexes) and fibrin formation (fibrinopeptide A), as well as markers of the fibrinolytic activity (tissue-plasminogen activator, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, d-dimers) either at rest or in response to exercise (108). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid decreased platelet reactivity and the expression of CD62P in platelets ex vivo (31). The effect of alpha-lipoic acid has been examined on platelet reactivity in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, results were unclear (163).
  • AntidepressantsAntidepressants: The authors of a systematic review stated that the effect of alpha-lipoic acid treatment on neuropathy was comparable to the effects of carbamazepine, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressants (6).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of cellular or blood tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-2 in most studies (171; 13; 125), but it lacked effect on IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha in another (147). Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid have also been shown in vitro (2; 172).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to moderate cholesterol increases associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). Improvements in plasma lipids (decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and/or increased HDL cholesterol) occurred in some (82; 118; 13) but not all (19; 17; 20; 27; 96; 126; 28; 30; 29) human studies. In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173)
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In human research, a combination of alpha-lipoic acid, hydroxycitrate, cisplatin, and methotrexate was more effective than both alpha-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate alone, and cisplatin and methotrexate alone (174). There is some preliminary evidence of benefit of alpha-lipoic acid in cancer patients in case reports (175; 176). According to secondary sources, alpha-lipoic acid antagonizes the action of cisplatin and may reduce cisplatin effectiveness. Anticancer effects of alpha-lipoic acid have been shown in vitro (177; 178). Antioxidants may influence the response to chemotherapy, as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents (179).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced body weight and food intake (180). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to reduce weight gain associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid increased weight loss in obese subjects (28), but it lacked effect on body weight in other studies (15). Weight gain was reported in a clinical trial (84). In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Studies in humans have yielded mixed results, although the majority support the antioxidant effects of alpha-lipoic acid (116; 115; 17; 117; 118; 119; 121; 13; 192; 22). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid and the metabolite DHLA had antioxidant activity and may interfere with other antioxidants (201; 202; 172; 73; 56; 54; 108).
  • AntipsychoticsAntipsychotics: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to reduce weight gain and cholesterol increases associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid prevented antipsychotic-induced dopamine D2 receptor upregulation and oxidative stress (181).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, changes in fat mass and lipid profile were lacking (173); however, alpha-lipoic acid improved lymphocyte function in patients with history of unresponsiveness to highly active antiretroviral treatment (123). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid suppressed HIV transcription (182; 183; 184) and delayed replication of HIV (185; 186). In vitro, lipoic acid reduced the growth of Vaccinia virus (187).
  • BiotinBiotin: In human research, loss of taste due to a dietary supplement containing acyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and biotin was treated with high-dose biotin (93).
  • CalciumCalcium: In human research, loss of taste due to a dietary supplement containing acyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and biotin was treated with high-dose biotin (93).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: In human research, antioxidants, including alpha-lipoic acid, were found to offer some improvements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (188). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced the pain associated with exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease (84).
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lessened the increase in total CoQ10 plasma levels induced with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) (150).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: Alpha-lipoic acid decreased NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity in the human heart, liver, and lungs (189; 190). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid was used as a reversible inhibitor of NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (191).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to have moderate antioxidative capability in terms of preventing oxidative damage to proteins in the human stratum corneum (192). In human research, DermaViteT, a preparation containing marine proteins, alpha-lipoic acid, pine bark extract, vitamins, and minerals, was found to be beneficial in aging symptoms of the skin (94). In human research, antioxidants containing alpha-lipoic acid before and during NB-UVB improved the clinical effectiveness of NB-UVB for vitiligo (193).
  • Devil's clawDevil's claw: In human research, effects of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose levels and glucose hemostatis were mixed, with decreases or no effects occurring, alone or in combination with antidiabetic agents (8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 88; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29). Products that may raise blood sugar levels, such as devil's claw, may reduce the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid when used for a blood sugar-lowering effect.
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: Alpha-lipoic acid has been advocated for liver disease; however, its use is anecdotal, and the mechanism of action remains unclear.
  • Hyperglycemics and hypoglycemicsHyperglycemics and hypoglycemics: In human research, effects of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose levels and glucose hemostatis were mixed, with decreases or no effects occurring, alone or in combination with antidiabetic agents (8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 88; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 89; 90). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved steady state plasma insulin, glucose infusion rate, and insulin sensitivity index (13). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid increased the overall glucose uptake (164; 165; 26; 166; 167; 15; 168; 169; 170). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid potentially reduced the need for antidiabetic medication, potentially causing short-term hypoglycemia (details regarding the placebo or alpha-lipoic acid group were lacking) (15).
  • Hypertensives and hypotensivesHypertensives and hypotensives: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effects on blood pressure in most studies (130; 15; 28; 124; 13); however, decreases were noted in others (82).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation was associated with an enhancement in glutathione levels and recovery of lymphocyte proliferative responsiveness in patients who previously failed antiretroviral treatment (HAART) (123). In vitro, alpha-lipoic acid and DHLA inhibited the migration of Jurkat cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in Jurkat cell supernatants (56).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid scavenged very-long-chain fatty acid-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in reduced oxidative stress to proteins, axonal degeneration, and locomotor impairment in an animal model (197). In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid prevented nerve dysfunction, based on nerve conduction velocity (198).
  • Ophthalmic agentsOphthalmic agents: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved biochemical parameters and visual function in patients with glaucoma (122).
  • Osteoporosis agentsOsteoporosis agents: Alpha-lipoic acid suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro (195).
  • PhosphorusPhosphorus: In human research, loss of taste due to a dietary supplement containing acyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and biotin was treated with high-dose biotin (93).
  • SedativesSedatives: Patients with burning mouth syndrome who had previously been treated with tranquilizers responded poorly to therapy with alpha-lipoic acid compared with those who had not received previous psychotropic therapy (162). Sleep disturbances were reported in a clinical trial, but both were also reported in the placebo group, and significance is unclear (83).
  • ThiamineThiamine: In animal research, thiamine deficiency has been reported with alpha-lipoic acid when taken in high doses (111; 112).
  • Thyroid agentsThyroid agents: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid interfered with the transformation of T4 to T3 (109).
  • VasoconstrictorsVasoconstrictors: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved endothelial dysfunction and flow-mediated dilation in most studies (124; 21; 82; 23; 153; 27). In vitro in vascular smooth muscle cells, alpha-lipoic acid up- or downregulated proteins involved in functioning of the cells (32). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to improve endothelial dysfunction and vasodilation (72; 200).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved endothelial dysfunction and flow-mediated dilation in most studies (124; 21; 82; 23; 153; 27). In vitro in vascular smooth muscle cells, alpha-lipoic acid up- or downregulated proteins involved in functioning of the cells (32). In laboratory research, alpha-lipoic acid was found to improve endothelial dysfunction and vasodilation (72; 200).
  • Vitamin CVitamin C: Vitamin C levels may be increased when taken with alpha-lipoic acid (203). The reduced form of alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA, enhanced recycling of ascorbic acid and vitamin E (204; 205).
  • Vitamin EVitamin E: The reduced form of alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA, enhanced recycling of ascorbic acid and vitamin E (204; 205). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid increased alpha-tocopherol plasma concentration (150). In rats, DHLA, in synergy with vitamin E, reduced oxidative damage to the hypoxic myocardium after reperfusion (206).

Alpha-lipoic acid/Food Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: Theoretically, administration with food decreases the effects of alpha-lipoic acid, and therefore experts suggest that it be taken on an empty stomach.

Alpha-lipoic acid/Lab Interactions:
  • AlbuminAlbumin: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved serum urinary excretion rates of albumin in some (22; 124), but not all (96), studies. In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced albuminuria (207; 208; 209).
  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of ADMA (210; 96).
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In human research, effects of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose levels and glucose hemostatis were mixed, with decreases or no effects occurring, alone or in combination with antidiabetic agents (8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 88; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 89; 90).
  • Blood lipidsBlood lipids: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to moderate cholesterol increases associated with use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (107). Improvements in plasma lipids (decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and/or increased HDL cholesterol) occurred in some (82; 118; 13) but not all (19; 17; 20; 27; 96; 126; 28; 30; 29) human studies.
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effects on blood pressure in most studies (130; 15; 28; 124; 13); however, decreases were noted in others (82).
  • cAMPcAMP: In multiple sclerosis patients, alpha-lipoic acid increased levels of cAMP in peripheral blood mononucleocytes (171).
  • CD4+ lymphocyte countsCD4+ lymphocyte counts: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced CD4+ lymphocyte counts in a nonclinically significant manner (105).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: In human research, supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on fibrinolytic variables, including thrombin (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin complexes) and fibrin formation (fibrinopeptide A), as well as markers of the fibrinolytic activity (tissue-plasminogen activator, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, d-dimers) either at rest or in response to exercise (108). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid decreased platelet reactivity and the expression of CD62P in platelets ex vivo (31). The effect of alpha-lipoic acid has been examined on platelet reactivity in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, results are unclear (163).
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lessened the increase in total CoQ10 plasma levels induced with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) (150).
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)C-reactive protein (CRP): In human research, an antioxidant containing alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on CRP levels in most studies (211; 196; 27; 96; 84; 29; 125; 147); however, it decreased in one study (126).
  • Creatine kinaseCreatine kinase: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on creatine kinase (117).
  • CreatinineCreatinine: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effect on serum or urinary creatinine levels (17; 124).
  • C-telopeptide (CTX)C-telopeptide (CTX): In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effect on CTX levels (101).
  • CytokinesCytokines: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of cellular or blood tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-2 in most studies (171; 13; 125; 13), but it lacked an effect on IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha in another (147). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid increased adiponectin levels (13).
  • F2-isoprostaneF2-isoprostane: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid decreased cerebrospinal fluid F2-isoprostane levels (104).
  • GlutathioneGlutathione: Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation improved HIV-caused glutathione deficiency (212; 213). Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation was associated with an enhancement in glutathione levels in patients who previously failed highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) (123).
  • Glycated proteinsGlycated proteins: In human research, a combination of alpha-lipoic acid and benfotiamine reduced levels of advanced glycation end products (AGE) (214). DHLA prevented serum albumin glycation in vitro (215).
  • HbA1CHbA1C: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid improved levels of HbA1C in some, but not all, studies (155; 102; 131; 154; 83; 17; 130; 79; 138; 19; 82; 115; 96; 28; 29; 92; 89; 90).
  • Heart rateHeart rate: In human research, heart rate variability improved in some (87), but not all (130), studies. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid has been examined on heart rate variability in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, results are unclear (163). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced (82) or had no effect (15) on heart rate.
  • HomocysteineHomocysteine: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effect on homocysteine levels (101).
  • InsulinInsulin: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effect on fasting insulin levels (15; 16).
  • Liver function testsLiver function tests: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT) in some (4), but not all (17), studies.
  • Plasma troponin-1Plasma troponin-1: In human research, an antioxidant mixture containing alpha-lipoic acid increased plasma troponin-1 (188).
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced levels of PAI-1 (125).
  • Serum lactateSerum lactate: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced serum lactate levels (9).
  • Serum pyruvateSerum pyruvate: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid reduced serum pyruvate levels (9).
  • ThiamineThiamine: In animal research, thiamine deficiency has been reported with alpha-lipoic acid when taken in high doses (111; 112).
  • Thyroid panelThyroid panel: In animal research, alpha-lipoic acid interfered with the transformation of T4 to T3 (109). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked an effect on free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab) (27).
  • Trace elementsTrace elements: An overdose of alpha-lipoic acid has been hypothesized to cause trace element deficiency in those with diabetes mellitus (113).
  • Uric acidUric acid: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid lacked effects on uric acid (13).
  • Urinary radioactivityUrinary radioactivity: In human research, alpha-lipoic acid decreased urinary radioactivity levels (157).
  • Vitamin CVitamin C: Vitamin C levels may be increased when taken with alpha-lipoic acid (203). The reduced form of alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA, enhanced recycling of ascorbic acid and vitamin E (204; 205).
  • Vitamin EVitamin E: The reduced form of alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA, enhanced recycling of ascorbic acid and vitamin E (204; 205). In human research, alpha-lipoic acid increased alpha-tocopherol plasma concentration (150).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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